Coombs Genealogies

Discovering our American and European Ancestors



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 #   Notes   Linked to 
(2) Hammer parish 1846-1866 no page number #2 opslag 107. Christen from Ørum age 42. Marianne from Grindsted in Hammer age 29 1/2. 
POULSEN, Christen (I905)
2 CONAN "TINDAETHWY" (755-817) #4792
CADWALLADR (635-664)
CADWALLON (616-635)
RHUN (ABT 584)
ANNA (Cousin to the Virgin Mary) <=== Continued from #4795
JOSEPH of Arimathea
MATTHAN (Grandfather of Virgin Mary)
ELMODAM HILKIAH <== Continued from #5013
MATTATHA Continued from #5013 ZERAHIAH
DAVID, King of Israel <' BUKKI
ARAM LEVI (One of the 12 Tribes)
JUDAH (One of the 12 Tribes) |
JACOB Or ISRAEL (Continued in *notes* in #4782) 
Conan "Tindaethwy" (I4749)
3 LLYWARCH #4795
CONSTANTINE "The Great" Emperor of Rome
COEL, King married STRADA "The Fair"
BRAN "The Blessed"
BARAN ANNA (Cousin to Virgin Mary)
CERI ** Continued in notes in #4792 **
BRUTUS (Came to Britian)
TROS ** Continued in notes in #4782 ** 
AP HYMEYT, Llywarch (I4752)
PHARAMOND Con't on #4908
FRANCUS, King of West Franks
ANTENOR, (King of the Cimmerians 443 B.C.--Chief Prince of Ephraim)
PRIAM, King of Troy ** Continued in notes in #4782 **
Source:Book of Adam Ogden GS Book Mss 929.2 A13b 
Eberhard (I5024)
5 ETHAS OR ACHIAS (Died 819 A.D.) #5013
ETHAFIND (Died 761)
EUGENE V (Died 721)
EUGENE IV (Died 692)
DONGARD II (Died 688)
DONALD I (Died 650)
EUGENE III (Died 622)
AIDAN (Died 604)
DONGARD I (Died 513)
FERGUS MACERCA (King in Scotland)
TAMAR TEPHI Married EOCHAID I (King in Ireland)
ZEDEKIAH (King of Judah)
JOSIAH (King of Judah) Married HAMMUTAL
AHAZ Continued in *NOTES* in #4792
SOLOMAN (King of Israel) <== Continued in *NOTES* in #4792 
Ethas (Achias) King of Argyl (I4966)
6 Sources:
The Scriptures
Royal line chart compiled by Albert F. Schmuhl
Royal Ancestors of some LDS Families 
Freothelaf (I4739)
7 !"Gospatric" means servant of Patrick Gospatric Earl of Dunbar (I4935)
8 !BIR-CHR: Grejs parish 1853-1891 no page number #2. LAURSEN, Henrik (I886)
9 !BIRTH-CHR: Grejs parish 1853-1891 no page number #4. MIKKELSEN, Hans Henrik (I920)
10 !BIRTH-CHR: Grejs parish 1853-1891 no page number #9.

DEATH-BUR: Grejs parish 1852-1891 page 27 #9. Age 6 hours. 
MIKKELSEN, Frederik Julius Kristian (I923)
11 !DEATH-BUR: Grejs parish 1852-1891 page 24 #1. Age 31 also list birth date. HANSEN, Henrich Clausen (I671)
12 "In the year 1610 things became too hot in Normandy for the Huguenots in their age-long struggle to put a Protestant King on the French throne; thus, it came to pass that the head of the Clan Pirre Jean (Peter John) Blanchard, loaded his family into his boat, The Johnthan," and sailed the English Channell, the North Sea and up the Humber River to Hull, in Yorkshire, England. His colony settled in Halifax, Leads and Bradford. Each was trained extensively in arts, crafts and the sciences. They were the very first "Teachocrats" in England; they revoluionized English industry and to a lesser degree English life. Peter John Blanchard settled in Halifax with his sons, Thomas, John, Peter, Joseph. In 1637 son Thomas's wife died and he moved his family to London Town. Later he left London with four sons, landing in Boston in 1639. Joseph and family also sailed to Boston; Peter and John remained in Yorkshire." --Edward John Blackman Sr. BLANCHARD, Pierre Jean (I2608)
13 "On April 29th, during the night, the Rev. John Philip Boehm died, without previous sickness, for on the day before he held a preparatory service for the Lord's Supper. It so happened that no Reformed preacher could be had to preach his funeral sermons, hence they engaged Martin Kolb, a Mennonite minister, to preach the funeral sermon. If such things become customary and common, without necessity compelling it, the envy and antagonism of parties will soon come to an end. How beautiful will it be at that time when there will be one shepherd and one flock. Till then patience!"
- Saur's Paper, May 16, 1749 (Pennsylvanische Berichte, No.108)

John Philip Boehm was the husband of Anna Maria Stahler/Stehler, until her death in 1715.
He married Anna Maria Scherer before emigrating from the Palatinate with his family in 1720.

baptized on Nov 25 1683 (Johannes Philipp Boehm)
son of Maria B. Englehard and Rev. Philip Ludwig Boehm 
BOEHM, John Philip (I19229)
14 "Snickaregesäll Thornberg" är fadder vid Snickare Anders Stenbergs dotter Anna Catharinas dop.

Trol. fadder i Södra Rörum vid Smeden Abraham Carlsson och Katarina Rafstens dotter Anna Margareta. 
THORNBERG, Petter (Per) Jönsson (I84)
15 "The last will & testamt of Elizoas Barron of Watertowne made Octob. 26.76
"In the name of God Amen  I Elizoas Barron being sicke & weak in body, but of sound & perfect understanding & memory, Do make this my last will in manner & forme as followeth:  And first I comend my soul into the hand of almighty God my maker, in & throw the intercession of Jesus Cht my blessed mediator & redeemer and my body to the earth to be buryed in hope of a glorious resurrection at the last day.
"And as for the estate of goods that it hath pleased God to bless mee with & possesse mee of, I Dispose of in manner & forme as followeth, and my will is that my Debts being pd and my funerall charges sattisfied and the agreemt that was upon mariage between my wife and I be pd of wch there  is a writing of it extant, and least it should not be found I do express it here, Our agreement was that if my wife were the longest liver, then shee should returne to her houses & lands that were hers before I maryed her, and to halfe halfe of my moveables & goods that should be left after my Decease, and a third pt of all my cattell, and a third pt of such lands as were purchased after maryage, by the blessing of God upon labours, and also shee is to have her owne household stuffe that was hers before mariage, and over & above as a gratification I bequeath to my wife the pyed heiffer also the Negro servt I leave to my wife, and desire her to have a care of him that he may suffer no wrong and my will is that the repayring of the house yt was my wifes before mariage that it be ... out of the whole estate, and my wife to stay in my house halfe a yeare after my Decease, and to take yt of such provisions as God hath provided us of, and my will is yt my wife shall have two thirds of the cotton wood in the house, and yt cotton yarne, and ye hemp yt is in the house, upon condition shee pay ye cooper wt is due to him.
"Item.  I give and bequeath unto my oldest Sonne Elizoas ten pounds which he is to have a yeare after my Desease set out unto him.
"I give & bequeath to my Sonne John five pounds to be paid to him two yeares after my decease or before ye two yeares if my executor please.
"I give & bequeath unto my Sonne Moses five pounds to be pd to him thre yeares after my decease or before ye three yeares if the Executor please.
"I give & bequeath Elizab. Barron my Grand Daughter the pyed black heifer,
"And after all these be discharged that are above expressed my will is that all the rest of my estate be divided unto Seaven Equall pts, and every one of my Seaven Children to have an equall Share and that all these paymts & divisions may be performed according to my true intent expressed in this my will.  I Do make my sonne Elizoas Barron my sole executor of this my last will & testament, and I have desired Thomas Hastings senr to be the overseer of this my will.
" Sealed & dd in the presence of us ........................... Eliz Barron & a sealeJohn BiscoThomas Hastings"
"Further wee can & do testifie that it was the will & desire of Elizoas Barron yt his sonne Elizoas Barron should have the house & lands yt were his paying out to the rest of the children their proportion bequeathed to them yt is expressed in the will above written.Thomas HastingsJohn BiscoDecemb. 19th 1676" 
BARRON, Ellis (I18763)
16 12) Den 20 Mars födes och d.24 ejusd döptes. skräddaren Jöns Rafsten och dess hustru Christina Thornberg doter, nom Mathilda susc Smeden Anders Lundgrens Hustru Elna Hansdotter i Hörby Socken. Testes Torparen Zackris Nilsson i Fogdaröd, Drängen Pehr Perhrsson i Höör. Moderns Ålder 25 år.
[Zackris Nilsson trol. farbror]

Utflyttad till Mellby -51

Ytflyttad till Halland [Årtal oläsligt på kopia. Kolla mikrokortigan]. Inflyttad från Mellby -42.
Inflyttad från Malmö -47.
Utflyttad till Malmö [Årtal oläsligt på kopia. Kolla mikrokortigan]. Inflyttad från p2 -55.
[Kan det verkligen stämma att hon flyttade så långt, så ung? Det stämmer inte med tidigare hfl]

Flyttade längre ner på sidan.

Left for America on 22 Aug 1871 from Höör

BIRTH-CHR: Höör parish FHL film #145,565 Item #3 p.193 #12. Mother age 25.

MARRIAGE: Civil registration for Höör Genline 100012.67.10200 #14. 
RAFSTEN, Mathilda (I533)
17 16/ allhälgonadag d 4 Novemb döptes smeden Abraham Carlsson och dess hüstrüs Catharina Rafstens Gåssebarn nom Johan Petter från S:Rörum. Bars till dopet af hüstrü Christena Rafsten från Hör Fadrar voro Skräddaren Nils "Jensen" och drängen Bengt på "Brånet" i S:Rörum. Barnet d 30 oct: och dess moder är 34 årh gamal.

No children to Johan born in Södra Rörum, may have moved.

BIRTH-CHR: Södra Rörum parish FHL film #147,186 Item #3 p.13 #16. Mother age 34.

MARRIAGES: (1) Södra Rörum parish Genline 1376.22.37300 #2.
(2) Södra Rörum parish Genline 1376.22.37700 #2. Husband age 35, wife age 33.

DEATH: Civil registration for Häglinge Genline 100011.72.44600 #61. Age 63 years 9 months 9 days. Even though the age is off, in the house surveys it shows this is the right Johan Carlsberg. 
CARLSBERG, Johan Petter (I684)
18 18.) Den 23 julü föddes och den 24 ejusdem döptes skräddaren Jöns Rafsten och dess hustrus Christina Tornbergs på Höörs Skog Flickobarn, nom. Helena. Susc Torparen Zachris Nilssons Hustru Boël Nilsdotter i Fogdaröds hus. Testes Skomakargesällen Pehr Landgren i Boarp af N. Rörums socken och Do. Jöns Tornberg i Fogdaröds hus. Moderns Ålder 28 år.
[Zachris Nilsson trol. farbror]

Utflyttad till s237. [Rörigt. Kolla nogrannare]

BIRTH-CHR: Höör parish FHL film #145,565 Item #3 p.209 #18. Mother age 28.

MARRIAGE: Höör parish Genline 1272.25.66800 #7. 
RAFSTEN, Helena (I461)
19 1910 Census for Letitia and Margaret list their father (William) as being born in Maryland, mother in Pennsylvania.

There is also a John Crookshank (Cruikshank) married to Ann Ellis also living in Troy. John is the same age as William Cruikshank, they could be brother. 
CRUIKSHANK, William (I18559)
20 1bir-DEATH: Archive record in Salt Lake MILLER, Susanna (I380)
21 21:Sep: Gÿllebo. Dom:2de Advent. d6. Decembr blef begrafven Jägarens Pehr Rafstens hüstrü Kirstina som dödde d 25 Novembr af vattusjuka i sitt ålders 61 åhr. Kirstina (I49)
22 3.Bapt. Lyahuset. ___ Festo Blef döpt Jägaren Per Rafsten och dess hustru Margaretha Jönsdotters son Jöns natus d 25 Januaru Susexptrix Hus___ __ N.N. Testes .... [resten slarvigt och svårläst]

"Lÿahuset" Dom ____ 4 april Blef begrafven Rafst___ Sohn Jöns som dödde af kåppor d 29 MArtü i sitt ålders 1 år och några månader. 
RAFSTEN, Jöns (I78)
23 4/ Den 4 Marti Döptes Smeden Abraham Carlsson och dess hustrus Catharina Rafstens Lilla Dotter, nom: Aña Margreta. Bars till dopet af Rüsth. Ola Jepsons hüstrü aña från S:Rörum. Faddrar voro Snickaren Thornberg från Qvesarüm och "Reserv" Huzaren Cristian Mineur fr. S:Rörüms gatehüs_ Barnet föddes d:27 Februari och dess moder är åren 40 åhr gamal_.
[Anm: Snickaren trol. Petter Thornberg, Jöns Nilsson Rafstens blivande svärfar]

BIRTH-CHR: Södra Rörum parish FHL film #147,186 Item #4 p35 #7. Born the 27th Febuary, wife age 40.

DEATH-BUR: Södra Rörum parish FHL film #147,186 Item #4 p225 #18. Died 4 Jul age 1 year 4 months and 5 days old. 
ABRAHAMSDOTTER, Ana Margreta (I541)
24 7/ Den 30 Marti doptes Smedens Abraham Carlssons och dess hüstrüs Catharina Rafstens gåssebarn, nom Carl Fredric_ Bars till dopet af Frü Pastorskan Maria Catharina "Biling" i S:Rörum_ Faddrar voro Skomak Carl Mineur ibm_ och hüsman Hans ____ [kanske Nilsson] i Höör_ Barnet föddes d28 i S:Rörum och dess moder är 36 åhr gamal_

No children to Carl born in Södra Rörum, may have moved.

BIRTH-CHR: Södra Rörum parish FHL film #147,186 Item #4 p24 #7. Born the 28th, mother age 36.

Not in 1820 house surveys with family. 
ABRAHAMSSON, Carl Fredrich (I495)
25 8) Den 3 December sammanvigdes skräddaren Jöns Nilsson ifrån Fogdaröd med pigan Christina Thornberg i Hör.
Lystes 1sta gång gång den 24 Octob. 1830 
Family F168
26 Adalbert Atto (or Adalberto Azzo) (died 13 February 988) was the first Count of Canossa and founder of that noble house which eventually was to play a determinant rôle in the political settling of Italyand the Investiture Controversy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
Adalbert first appears in sources as a son of Sigifred of Lucca. He was originally a vassal of King Lothair II and a miles of Adelard, Bishop of Reggio. He rose to prominence rapidly by sheltering Queen Adelaide in his castle at Canossa after she fled from the castle of Garda (951), where Berengar II had imprisoned her.
In 958, he was made a count sine re, by Adelaide. He did not appear again as a count in documents until December 961, during Berengar's ascendancy. On 20 April 962, he appeared as count of Reggioand Modena (comes Regensis sive Mutinensis). These appointments were probably a further product of his support for Adelaide and her new husband, Otto I of Germany. With the queen, he negotiated a division of power with the bishop of Reggio whereby the bishop was confirmed as comes civitatis, count of the city, and Adalbert as comes comitatus, count of the county, where the county was said to begin three or four miles outside the city walls. He appears with a similar title, comes comitatus Mantuanensis, in Mantua in a letter of the abbess of Santa Giulia dated 10 June 977.
In 984, Adalbert appears as a margrave. When Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, was acclaimed as king that year, he united Parma, Piacenza, Bergamo, Cremona, and Brescia to Adalbert's territories. However, Henry's usurpation of the throne was brief.
Adalbert Atto built a monastery at Canossa in 961, dedicated to S. Apollonio in 971. He also built a monastery at Brescello. He and his family were all buried in S. Apollonio.
Adalbert married the Supponid Hildegard (Ildegarda) and had three sons: Geoffrey and Tedald, who became respectively bishop (970) and count (1001) of Brescia, and Rudolph, who predeceased him. He had a daughter Prangarda who married Manfred I of Susa.

Wickham, Chris. Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400-1000. MacMillan Press: 1981.
Duff, Nora (1909). Matilda of Tuscany: La Gran Donna d'Italia. London: Methuen & Co.
Caravale, Mario. (ed) Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Rome. 
Adalbert II Otto Count of Modena and Canossa (I27191)
27 Biography

George Gale must have come from his country home to York by 1514-15, when he was made free of the city as a goldsmith. In 1529 he was elected alderman without having previously been sheriff: this was perhaps a concession to his special status as mintmaster, for only two other aldermen of Tudor York, one of them his fellow-Member (Sir) George Lawson, were allowed to do this. He was, however, elected sheriff in 1530, although he was alleged to have tried to bribe the common council not to nominate him, and it was then agreed that he should continue to be an alderman, his shrievalty notwithstanding.5
It seems certain that Gale was already holding office at the York mint, but the matter is not clear: one report suggests that he was the master of the archbishop’s mint and that after the fall of Wolsey he continued to mint halfpence by licence, another that he was master of the royal mint in 1526-7, when Thomas Mason was mayor—a discrepant statement this, as Mason’s year of office began on 3 Feb. 1528. Perhaps Gale was in charge of both mints; the archbishop’s mint was certainly in operation until at least 1532 and if there was a royal mint it must have ceased production soon afterwards, to be revived in 1545. On 3 Apr. of that year Gale was appointed its under treasurer, at a salary of 100 marks a year, and on 14 May the city council exempted him from regular attendance because ‘he stands charged with the King’s mint within this city’. He was to hold the office until 28 Feb. 1554, although the mint is not known to have operated after the death of Edward VI.6
Gale early became an active member of the city council and often travelled to London on its behalf. He was by-elected to the Parliament of 1529 following the death of his kinsman Peter Jackson during the winter of 1531-2. The date of the by-election is not known, but it took place between the spring of 1532, when Jackson was still included although marked ‘mortuus’ on the revised list of Members, and January 1533. On 22 Jan. Gale was given instructions relating to the city’s decaying trade, revenues and buildings. The instructions were for him alone, his colleague (Sir) George Lawson being apparently too busy to attend; this irregularity had led the council to draw up a letter nine days earlier giving Gale full power to act on its behalf. He appears to have attended all the remaining (fifth to eighth) sessions of the Parliament, but nothing else has come to light save that for the autumn session of 1534, when he was serving his first term as mayor, the council voted him a special retinue ‘for the worship of the city’. He and Lawson also represented the city in the short Parliament of June-July 1536, for which the council equipped them with instructions about trade. Gale did not sit in the Parliament of 1539, but three years later he was elected for the third and last time, on this occasion with John Hogeson. Their instructions from and reports to their city show that the obstructive ‘fishgarths’ in the river Ouse had become a chief concern, but various trading matters also occupied them and they succeeded in obtaining an Act (34 and 35 Hen. VIII, c.10) which gave York a monopoly of coverlet making in Yorkshire.7
In 1549 Gale was elected mayor a second time, ‘for the good wisdom, soberness and other good qualities in him apparent’. He at first refused the office because of his mint duties: he was supported by Protector Somerset, who ordered the city to rescind the election, but both must have waived their objection. This mayoralty saw action taken under an Act of 1547 (1 Edw. VI, c.9) in uniting city parishes and selling the redundant churches: Gale himself was offered the churchyard and rectory of St. Helen-on-the-Walls for 10s. In January 1550, towards the end of his term, he seems to have left the city to avoid an outbreak of plague, and he was still absent in September.8
In 1524 Gale, then living in the rich Belfray parish, had been assessed for subsidy on 20 marks in goods, but in 1546 he was rated at 140 marks in lands and fees and in 1547 at 200 marks. This prosperity he no doubt owed to his office at the mint, although he may have retained his goldsmith’s business and he certainly engaged in general trading. Much of his capital was invested in property: in 1530 he acquired the manor of ‘Bardalgarth’, thus becoming only the second Tudor alderman of York to be a manorial lord. In 1546-7 he added land in Hunburton and Whenby, and in 1550 he bought from the city property in Hemingbrough, Scarborough, Stamford Bridge and Whenby. He had by 1539 come to live in Petergate, in the parish of Holy Trinity, Goodramgate, and it was perhaps there that his wife’s sister, the last prioress of Wilberfoss near York, came to live when her house was surrendered. In 1553 Gale and his wife bought Wilberfoss priory from the crown, together with lands and rectories in several neighbouring parishes, for the sum of £615. Gale was connected by marriage with both his city brethren and the county gentry. His elder daughters married two aldermen, Ralph Hall† and Robert Paycock, and his younger ones made even more advantageous matches, Ursula with Sir William Mallory† and Dorothy with Thomas Fairfax.9
Gale made his will on 11 June 1556. Among his charitable bequests were £8 to the York poor to pray for his soul, an order to his wife to pay them £4 a year, and £7 to mend local highways. Besides much city property, he left lands in Catton, Escrick, Hunburton and Wilberfoss, leases of Acomb Grange, and Acomb with Holgate, Lilling, and the tithes of Newton and Wilberfoss. His wife and two sons were named executors, and three of his brethren supervisors, aldermen John North and Robert Hall II, and recorder William Tancred. Gale died in the following month, on either 10 or 20 July, and contrary to his expressed wish he was buried in the Minster, where an epitaph to him, his wife and son was afterwards placed, markedly Catholic in tone.10
Ref Volumes: 1509-1558
Author: D. M. Palliser


1.Did not serve for the full duration of the Parliament; York Civic Recs. iii (Yorks. Arch. Soc. rec. ser. ciii), 145.
2.York Civic Recs. iv (Yorks. Arch. Soc. rec. ser. cvi), 3.
3.Date of birth estimated from first reference. Vis. of the North, i (Surtees Soc. cxxii), 61; York pub. lib. R. H. Skaife ms civic officials, i. 282-4; Reg. Corpus Christi Guild, York (Surtees Soc. lvii), 174n.
4.Reg. Corpus Christi Guild, York, 174, 300-1; York archs. B11-22 passim; LP Hen. VIII, xx; CPR, 1553-4, pp. 195-6; Brit. Numismatic Jnl. xlv. 60.
5.Reg. Freemen, York, i (Surtees Soc. xcvi), 236; York archs. B11, f. 101; York Civic Recs. iv. 12.
6.York Civic Recs. iii. 142; LP Hen. VIII, v, xx; G. C. Brook, Eng. Coins, 175-9, 189, 190; York archs. B17, f. 88v; E351/2080; C. E. Challis, The Tudor Coinage, 78.
7.York Civic Recs. iii. 138 passim to iv. 109; Elton, Reform and Renewal, 77; York archs. B11, f. 137.
8.York Civic Recs. v (Yorks. Arch. Soc. rec. ser. cx), 6-29, 43-44; Challis, 41.
9.Yorks. Arch. Jnl. iv. 170; xxxvii. 496-7; E179/217/110-111; Fabric Rolls York Minster (Surtees Soc. xxxv), 110; Tudor Feet of Fines, i (Yorks. Arch. Soc. rec. ser. ii), 56, 125, 128; Yorks archs. B19, ff. 95-96; LP Hen. VIII, xiv; Test. Ebor. vi (Surtees Soc. cvi), 307-8; CPR, 1553, p. 89; York pub. lib. R. H. Skaife ms civic officials, i. 282-4; York wills, 15(1), 292.
10.York wills 15(1), 62; Drake, Eboracum, 497; C142/109/52, 59. 
GALE, George Mayor of York (I24431)
28 Born:
17 April 1705, Ingolsheim, Alsace, France
14 December 1733, Mrs. Mary Catherine Bigler
25 April 1787
Hans Thomas Bigler & Anna Maria Vogler
Mark Bigler was born “Marx Bigler”, the name appearing on his christening record. it is assumed that when Marx immigrated to the United States that the X was mistaken to be a K.  Since most with the name “Mark” spelled their name with a K, we further assume that Marx changed his name to “Mark” to assist with his assimilation into his new culture.
MARK BIGLER, THE IMMIGRANT 1705 – 1787 by Norman Burns, 1960 with editorial comment in italics by Franklin K. Brough, 1981 and rev. made by Edwin Bigler from research of Mark Bigler and family. 30 December 2006 Mark Bigler, our earliest known ancestor in America, came from Ingolsheim, Alsace, France, which is near the Rine River. Marks father had four sons: Hans Jacob of 1701, Hans Georg 1703, Marx 1705, Hans Michael 1707.
Mark is the forefather of the Presbyterian Biglers of Virginia; Jacob is the forefather of the Mormon Biglers of Utah; and Israel, ancestor of the Baptist Biglers of Western Pennsylvania and the Church of Brethren Biglers of Ohio and Indiana. It is interesting to contemplate Biglers scattered from coast to coast, paying homage to the immigrant Mark Bigler. The relationship of the Utah, Ohio and Virginia Biglers was not known until Norman Burns, a descendent of Israel Bigler, made these discoveries and published them in his book, The Bigler Family, 1960. The origin of the Bigler name is in Switzerland. It is a common surname in the rural area surrounding Bern. After the Reformation, religious persecution was prevalent in Berne, since any departure from the official Reformed Church was regarded as heresy before God and virtual treason to the State of Berne. The anabaptists, known in America as the Mennonites, were subjected to over two centuries of the most severe persecution. Anabaptists men and women were dunked in the River Aare in a scientific way to prolong their torture as long as possible until life became extinct. Others were sold to the Venetians to work as galley slaves on Venetian ships plying the Mediterranean. Great numbers had all their property confiscated and were expelled from Berne as destitute refugees. In the period between 1671 and 1711 several hundred Anabaptists left Berne for Alsace, among them being Grabers, Biglers, Mullers, Lehmanns – names frequently associated together in America. Against this background, it seems likely that Mark Bigler’s grandparents Henrich Bigler of 26 November 1645 fled Muri Bei Berne during the wave of religious persecution after 1671, They settled by the Rine River in Ingolsheim, Alsace, France now called, and that is where Mark was born with his brothers. Beginning about 1720, the “America fever” spread throughout the Palatinate and a growing number of members of the dissident sects in the German Swiss and German Rhine country moved down the Rhine Valley to Rotterdam, the great seaport at the mouth of the Rhine in Holland, from whence so many sailed for the promised land. This great wave of emigration went mainly to Pennsylvania, for William Penn, who thrice visited the Palatinate, encouraged the migration of all those who sought freedom from religious persecution of the Old World in his Quaker land of Pennsylvania. Mark Bigler’s name was listed three times on the list as Marx and was changed to Mark when he arrived at Philadelphia, September 28, 1733 on the Brigantine Richard and Elizabeth. Master Christopher Clymer in command, that sailed from Rotterdam. On ship documents was a list of Palatines (Rhinelanders) on board including Marx Beegler, age 28. Another list of “Palatines imported in the Brign Richard and Elizabeth” and reported as having taken the oath of allegiance to the Province of Pennsylvania included Marx Bigler. No other Biglers were reported on this ship. Family tradition has it that three Bigler brothers came to America, Mark, Georg, and Michael. We do not know where Georg went once in America,The other two came to Pennsylvania from the old country. Many Biglers arrived in Pennsylvania in the decades 1733-53 none reported as arriving before 1733, but of these I have been able to trace relationships only between the brothers Mark and Michael Bigler. This relationship was discovered only through the accidental finding of Michael’s will of September 21, 1763 at Frederick, Maryland: where he mentions his brother Mark. Michael Bigler arrived in Philadelphia, May 30, 1741 on the Snow Francis and Ann from Rotterdam. He and Mark appear to have been close associates all all their lives, and his name has been carried on by some of Mark’s children. The question is asked sometimes whether William Bigler, Governor of Pennsylvania 1852-55, and his brother John Bigler, Governor of California 1852-56, were related to our family. I have not been able to discover any direct relationship. Our meager knowledge of Mark Bigler in the New World comes from a few legal and church records. That he moved about considerably and that he prospered is evident from those fragmentary records. It is a pity that the early Brethren were so little inclined to write about their own lives. From the legal records alone they appear to have marched stiffly through the pages of history, clothed in an austere legal atmosphere, whereas in fact they must have been sturdy and vibrant personalities with interesting stories to tell if only the tale had been told. The first record is that of a land warrant issued to Marcus Bigler by the Province of Pennsylvania, on October 18, 1738, for 200 acres in Lancaster County. This may have been in the Manor of Springetbury on the Little Conewage River, adjacent to the land of Leonard Leyst or Lease. However, neither the Lancaster Court House nor the York County records which I examined personally (York County having been carved from Lancaster County in 1749) indicates that Mark Bigler converted this warrant into a deed of actual ownership. The York County records do not show any land ownership in that county by Mark Bigler from their beginning in 1749. Michael Bigler, Mark’s brother had various land transactions in what is now York County. There is some tradition that Mark was in Bucks Country, Pennsylvania, north of Philadelphia, for a time, and that some of his children were born there. Henry W. Bigler mentions it, and lists Bucks County as the birthplace of Jacob Bigler in temple ordinances performed in St George. Mark Bigler moved from York County to nearby Frederick County, Maryland, presumably in 1743 the date of his first recorded acquisition of land in Frederick County. In his continuing historical search, Norman Burns in June 1981 discovered a deed for 200 acres known as Hull’s choice that was bought from the Governor of Maryland. The deed is found in the Provencial Court Record of Maryland. The Court House records of Frederick County indicate that Mark Bigler acquired several tracts in Frederick County, Md., in 1743, 1750 and 1761. These tracts Upon his death were passed to his son Mark II-who in turn transferred them (and possibly some Iand of his own) to his brother Israel in a deed of April 13, l802. This latter deed described the various tracts, all contiguous and converted into one tract, that had been acquired by Mark I over the years, namely: “a tract called Mark’s Delight originally on the first day of March 1743 granted Mark Biegler, A tract called Bigler’s addition to Hulls Choice originally on the thirtieth day of October 1750 granted to the said Mark Biegler And a tract called the Resurvey on Hull’s Choice originally on the 29th day of September 1761 granted the same Mark Biegler … Containing two hundred and fifty nine and a half acres of land”for the sum of four hundred pounds current money. The deed was signed by Mark Bigler and Catherina Begeler. Mark Bigler and Mary Catherine had ten children: 3 sons and 7 daughters. Mark 1734, Elizabeth B. 1735, a Daughter B. 1737, Salme B. 1739, Phebe B. 1741, Catherine B.1743, Hester B.1745, Israel B.1747, Julianna B.1
0, Jacob B.1752, and Barbary b.1754. Mark Bigler made his last will on March 19, 1787, when he was near his journey’s end. Soon thereafter, on April 25, 1787, his son, Israel appeared in the Frederick County court testifying that this document was the true will of his deceased father. Mark Bigler voiced his devout spirit in the words of his will. “I, most Humbly bequeath my Soul to God my Maker Beseeching his most Gracious Acceptance of it.” He showed a tender solicitude for the welfare, of his “dearly beloved wife Catherine in the requests to his son to “keep two Cows for his Mother winter and summer as his own are kept” and to his tenant to harvest her share of the grain and to “Carry it up Stairs for her”. His cherished “plantation …containing two hundred and thirty five Acres (in) Pipe Crick hundred and Frederick County” was bequeathed,in accord with European tradition, to one son Mark. Named in the will were his other nine children, each of whom received specified sums of money namely, Israel, Jacob, Catharine, Elizabeth, Salme , Phebe, Julianna, Hester and Barbary, and two granddaughters. Thus Yeoman Mark Bigler, wandering immigrant from the Rhineland, after more than four score of eventful years, blessed with sons and daughters and many fertile acres came to his last resting place in Frederick County, Md., in 1787. He had lived through stirring times when the American colonies struggled for and gained their independence. Now (1787) they were on the verge of formulating that great document, the Constitution, that made America the kind of country where the descendants of Mark Bigler, and of all others like him, could enjoy a heritage of freedom. Mark Bigler’s descendants are now legion, of many different religious faiths, engaged in varied materials pursuits and living in many states from the eastern seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. 
BIGLER, Mark (I125)
29 Charlotte Dalmark
 (1877 - 1959)
Dalmark, Charlotte Camilla Alvilda

1877-1959, læge.
*5.3.1877 i Kbh., †26.3.1959 i Gentofte sg.
Forældre: murermester Rasmus Peder Nielsen (1854-1927) og Anna Marie Petersen (1853-1932).
~12.5.1905 med læge Peder Christian Jensen D., *3.10.1877 i Manne, Tise sg., †13.11.1961 i Gentofte sg., s. af gårdejer Jens Lausen Nielsen og Christiane Pedersen.
Børn: Gunni (1911).
CD voksede op i et borgermiljø, hvor faderen var murermester. Hun blev student i 1897, tog medicinsk embedseksamen ved Kbh.s Universitet i 1905 og blev samme år gift med studiekammeraten Peder D., kaldet Wappe. Han havde året før købt en lægepraksis i Sorø, hvor CD også fik arbejde, men det blev hurtigt andre områder, der optog den aktive og socialt bevidste unge læge.
Allerede i 1905 blev CD knyttet til Sorø Husholdningsskole som timelærer i barnepleje, sundhedslære og hygiejne og var samtidig skolens læge. Denne virksomhed kom til at vare i 40 år frem til 1945. Fra 1920 underviste hun også på Ankerhus Husholdningsseminarium i fagene anatomi, fysiologi og hygiejne. Hendes omfattende undervisningsvirksomhed medførte, at hun også blev en flittigt benyttet foredragsholder rundt om i hele landet i såvel husholdningsorganisationer som andre foreninger med sundhed og hygiejne som interesseområde. Hun var en meget engageret og opfindsom underviser, der altid benyttede en elev som “offer” i sine lektioner og havde aktuelle historier til at underbygge sine hygiejneregler med. Ofte var det Wappe og sønnen Gunni, der måtte holde for i disse historier. Hun støttede Ankerhus’ forstander ◊•Magdalene Lauridsens forsøg på at introducere et husøkonomisk-politisk program ved Folketingsvalget i 1929 og holdt på et vælgermøde et indlæg om “Mændene der forstaar saa frygtelig lidt af det, som Kvinderne har med at gøre.” Gennem radioforedrag i serien Humørhygiejne blev hun landskendt, ligesom hendes efterhånden omfattende forfatterskab gjorde hende kendt i vide kredse. Hendes hjerte brændte for sundhedslære og førstehjælp, og det førte til et langt samarbejde med Dansk Røde Kors (DRK), hvor hun blev den første kvindelige læge i ledelsen. Hun startede som lokalformand for Sorøafdelingen i 1917 og bestred denne post til 1938. I 1927 blev hun medlem af hovedbestyrelsen og i 1934 tillige af forretningsudvalget. I en periode var hun endvidere formand for organisationens ungdomsudvalg. Under den finske vinterkrig 1939-40 deltog hun i samarbejde med svensk Røde Kors i et storstilet hjælpearbejde for krigens ofre.
CDs forfatterskab omfattede lærebøger om spædbørnspasning, sundhedslære og nødhjælp, udgivet gennem DRK. Salgssuccesen Humør-Hygiejne udkom i første oplag 1932. Hun var medarbejder på Dansk Husmoderleksikon, 1948-49, og skrev afsnittet om kvindelige lægers historie i Kvinden i Danmark, 1942, hvori hun også fortalte om sin egen karriere. Hun tildeltes i 1947 Den Kgl. Belønningsmedaille i guld, ligesom hun modtog en række danske og nordiske hæderbevisninger for sin indsats i Røde Kors.
Foto i KB.
Sorø Husholdningsskole 1895-1970, 1970. Aarsskrift for Foreningen Ankerhus, 1945.

Gustav Nedergaard

Akademikere · Læger 
Dansk Røde Kors · Ankerhus Husholdningsseminarium · Sorø Husholdningsskole 
Medicin · Hygiejne · Nødhjælpsorganisationer · Husholdning · Hædersbevisninger ·Undervisning 
1900-tallet · 1900'erne · 1910'erne · 1920'erne · 1930'erne · 1940'erne 
Københavns Kommune 
DALMARK, Charlotte Camilla Alvilda (I4902)
30 Else Kirstine Katrine Pedersen Meldgaard ("Gedua") 
Født  22.12.1878 på Vestergård i Lyngdrup nord for Nørresundby. Hun kom i huset hos pastor Koch i Herning og mødte her som 17 årig Johannes og de blev forlovede inden Johannes rejste til Kina. Gedua kom til Bøvling præstegård for at øve sig i husførelse hos den senere formand for DMS, pastor Busch. Den 3.9.1899 begyndtes rejsen, der sluttede 27.10.1899 Samme aften blev Johannes og Gedua gift.
"Gedua" er et navn børnene fandt på i  Bøvling præstegård.
Efter Johannes´ død fik hun lejlighed på Falkonér alle, hvor hun boede sammen med døtrene og da Gerda og Else flyttede hjemmefra, var Edith og Anna sammen med hende. Deltog aktivt i det Københavnske kirkeliv ikke mindst når det havde noget med mission at gøre.
PEDERSEN MELDGAARD, Else Kirstine Katrine (I6715)
31 Guy or Guido (died before 819) was appointed to replace the late Roland as Warden of the Breton March after his death at the Battle of Roncesvalles in 778. Guy no more effectively exercised control over Brittany than his predecessor, but was the chief contact by which the Bretons knew French policy. His actual territory of control was the County of Nantes. Carolingian infighting distracted Guy and prevented him from exhibiting any real authority. It was to be Norman pressure on the Bretons which would open a portal to a French dynasty in Brittany under Berengar of Rennes.
Guy was the son of Lambert and Teutberga of the Austrasian family of the Guideschi. Guy received his charge in Neustria and Nantes about 799, at the same time that his brother Frodoald received thecounty of Vannes. Royal annals note in the year 799 that "Guy, prefect of the marches of Brittany, who in the same year traversed the whole province with the counts his colleagues, came to present [toCharlemagne] at Aachen, the arms of the Breton chiefs who had been rendered to him, and on each trophy was inscribed the name of the chief to whom the weapon belonged." It was specified at the same time that "Brittany appeared then to be entirely subject."
Guy's name subsequently appears, notably in 814, in the many acts recorded in the cartulary of the abbey of Saint-Sauveur de Redon, where it is found beside that of Jarnhitin (or Iarnhitin), machtiern (ormactiern) or princeps plebis (prince of the people, meaning chief). The cartulary says "Jarnhitin rules, Guy is count."
Guy died before 819, leaving his son Lambert as count of Nantes and prefect of the march. 
Guido Warden of Breton March (I26969)
32 Johannes August Vyff 
Født 10.8.1870 i Vonsild. 
Skolegang i Kolding. I gartnerlære. I 1891 følte han kaldet til Ydre Mission. !892-96 Teologisk uddannelse hos provst Koch i Herning (Senere biskop i Ribe). Mødte her Gedua. Ordination i Ribe 19.8.1896 med 15 andre (Uden ret til at virke som præst i Danmark!). Rejste 2.10.1896 til Kina. Kinesiske studier. Grundlagde missionsstation i Antung i Manchuriet, hvor der efterhånden kom hospital, skole og kirke.  Johs. lagde hele sin energi og penge i at oprette et uddannelsessted for vordende kinesiske medarbejdere i Pitsaikou - en skole, der kombinerede gartneri og boglig lærdom.
Var på hjembesøg 5 gange, den ene en længere rejse til USA i 1913. Døde af Leukemi i 1932, havde været sløj en tid, men blev ved med at arbejde indtil kort tid inden han døde. 
Døde 1932 i Kina
Gift 27.10.1899
VYFF, Johannes August (I6716)
33 John, "the Middle", was born about 1555 and was a cardmaker, of Nayland. He was taxed there xvi d. on lands in the subsidy of 8 James I (1611). He married first at Nayland, 4 Oct 1584, Elizabeth Scarlet. He married secondly, Rose (____); and thirdly at Nayland, 23 Apr 1611, Rose Riddlesdale.
The Will of John Waren of Nayland in the County of Suffolk, cardmaker, 27 Mar. 1613. To be buried in the parish churchyard of Nayland. To wife Rose £20, the household goods and plate she brought with her, my tenement where William Bawlden dwells, during her life, and during her widowhood the parlor and chamber in my now dwelling house. To son John and his lawful issue my mansion house where I now dwell, with the barn, stable and garden lying in Fen Street, excepting the aforesaid two rooms. To daughter Mary and her lawful issue, after the decease of my wife, my said tenement in Fen Street where William Baulden dwells, and in default of such issue to my son John, he to pay 40s. apiece to all my children then living. To sons Isaac, Nathaniel, Amos, and daughter Elizabeth, £10 apiece. To sons Joshua and Thomas £10 each at twenty-one. My plate to be equally divided between my wife and son John, and my household goods to be equally divided among my wife and all my children. To the poor people if Nayland 20s. All the residue of my goods unbequeathed I give to my son John, whom I make my executor. [Signed] John Warrene. Witnesses : William Foorth, John Walter, and Edward Collinges. Proved 4 Nov. 1613 by John Warren, son of the testor and the executor named in the will. (P.C.C., Capell, 98.)
WARREN, John (I18753)
34 Lambert I (died 836) was the Count of Nantes and Prefect of the Breton March between 818 to 831 and Duke of Spoleto between 834 and 836. Lambert succeeded his father Guy.
Lambert participated in an expedition undertaken by Louis the Pious in 818 against the Bretons, who had proclaimed Morvan Lez-Breizh their king. In 822, a new Breton chief Wiomarc'h rebelled, but submitted in May 825 at Aachen. On his return to Brittany, Lambert had him assassinated.
In 831, Lambert joined the rebellion of Lothair I against Louis and was exiled across the Alps,[1] where he was given the Duchy of Spoleto in 834. He was one of many among Lothair's entourage to die in an epidemic of 836.
Lambert married firstly Itta, who bore his eventual successor in Nantes, Lambert II. Subsequently, he married Adelaide of Lombardy, the eldest daughter of Pepin of Italy, who was in turn the eldest son of Charlemagne that had children. Adelaide bore him another son, Guy, who would succeed him in the duchy of Spoleto. Guy's son Guy III of Spoleto was a descendant of Charlemagne through Lambert's wife, Adelaide, and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor. 
Lambert I Count of Nantes, Prefect of the Breton March, Duke of Spoleto (I26968)
35 Robertus de Lavedre, who witnessed a charter of John de Mautelant [Maitland] to the Abbey of Dryburgh early in the 13th century.  DE LAVEDRE, Robertus (I23406)
36 Robertus de Lavedre, whom Playfair’s British Antiquity states was a soldier of the Cross in 1188, he having accompanied David Earl of Huntingdon, brother of King William the Lion, to the Holy Land in the Third Crusade. As an emblem of his presence in Palestine he got for his crest a Saracen’s head on a sword. DE LAVEDRE, Robertus (I23407)
37 Sir Robert de Lavedre of Bass, of whom there are many notices. He was a firm friend and supporter of Sir William Wallace and fought at the battle of Stirling Bridge on 12th September 1297. He died in May 1311 and was interred within the old church of North Berwick. His gravestone was observed and described by Alexander Nisbet in 1722 DE LAWEDRE, Robert of Bass (I23404)
38 Sir Robert de Lawedre of Bass (d.before 1338) was also a brave associate of Sir William Wallace. At this time the family of Lauder are recorded amongst those below the rank of earl who have been considered as belonging to the Scottish higher nobility. This Sir Robert had numerous charters extending his estates, one of which, dated 1316, included a small part of the Bass which had been retained by The Church. By 1319 Sir Robert was Justiciary of the Lothians (that part of Scotland south of the Forth) a position he held for the rest of his life. Rymer’s Foedera records Sir Robert as one of the Scottish plenipotentiaries who signed the truce between England and Scotland in 1323. He was again ambassador to England in 1327,1328 and 1329 for further treaty discussions. In 1330 he held the estates of Edrington in Berwickshire and was Keeper of Berwick Castle and Sheriff there. He was present at the battle of Halidon Hill on 20th July 1333 but, according to Knyghton, he was prevented from taking any active part in it through advanced years, unable to dismount from his horse in his full armour. In September and December 1333 he is recorded as Chamberlain of Scotland (confirmed by George Burnett, Lyon King, in 1898) but appears to have died by December 1337 when his widow, Elizabeth, was granted a pension. DE LAWEDRE, Robert of Bass (I23401)
39 Sir Robert de Lawedre, eldest son, designed firstly, in his father’s lifetime,‘of ‘Quarrelwood’ in Moray (part of Macbeth’s lands) and after 1337 ‘of Bass’. He is noted as a page to his father and other Scottish ambassadors sent to negotiate a peace treaty with England in 1323. In 1328 he was appointed Justiciary North of the Forth and was receiving a pension for that post in 1363. He is recorded as being in receipt of the returns for all fishing in the lower reaches of the Whitadder River, below Edrington castle, in 1329 "by right of inheritance". He fought alongside Archibald Douglas at the battle of Halidon Hill following which he hastened north to occupy Urquhart Castle, Loch Ness, for David II, so chronicled by Wyntoun. It stands recorded as one of the four Scottish strongholds which defied the power of Edward III. This monarch confiscated the several properties owned by Sir Robert de Lawedre in and around Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1335. He is recorded amongst the Scottish prisoners taken at the battle of Nevilles’ Cross. This Robert gave a charter of some lands "in and near his burgh of Lauder" to Thomas de Borthwick, which was witnessed by John de Mauteland [Maitland], sixth of the Lauderdale family, Sir Robert’s son Alan, and his grandson "Roberto filio Alani, Ballio de Lawedre." Sir Robert died about 1370  DE LAWEDRE, Robert of Quarrelwood (I23396)
40 Sir Robert Hales, 1st Baronet (ca. 1610 – ca. 1695) was an English lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1659.
Hales was the son of Thomas Hales of Beaksbourne, Kent, and his wife Mary Peyton, daughter of Sir Thomas Peyton of Knowlton, Kent. He was admitted to Inner Temple in November 1628, and became a barrister in 1637. In 1659, he was elected Member of Parliament for Hythe in the Third Protectorate Parliament. He was created a baronet on 12 July 1660.[1]
Hales died between December 1693 when he made his will, and 26 February 1696 when the will was proved.
Hales married Catherine Ashcomb, daughter of Sir William Ashcomb of Alvescot, Oxfordshire. 
HALES, Robert 1st Baron of Bekesbourne (I17495)
41 William de Lowedre of Lowedre, Sheriff of Perth in 1251 and who witnessed a charter of King Alexander III (r.1249-1286). He had a brother, David. William was followed by his son. DE LAWEDRE, William (I23405)
42 Aaron is illegimiate. He is sealed to John Jenkins since Margaret married him
COOMBS, Aaron (I259)
43 According to granddaughter Phyllis Betz, Johan is from Sweden, possibly Lund. They were married in Sweden before moving to Philadelphia. When wife Amanda returned back in 1894 to Sweden, Johan stayed in the United States and died in the US. Not sure if Amanda went back after Johan's death, or before. But Johan did die in the US. STREANDER (REINHOLD?, Johan Sterenda) (I694)
44 AFN C8S6-3Q. VAUGHN, David (I16167)
45 After 1880 Census MADSEN, Niels Christopher (I3618)
46 After 1890 census age 64 HANSDATTER, Ingeborg (I5585)
47 After the death of his father Adalbert II in 815, he was the Count and Duke of Lucca and Margrave of Tuscany until his own death in 928 or 929. His mother Bertha was his regent from his father's death until 916.
He kept court at Mantua around the year 920. In 924 or 925, he became the second husband of Marozia, a Roman noblewoman who had the title senatrix patricia Romanorum.
In order to counter the influence of Pope John X (whom the hostile chronicler Liutprand of Cremona alleges was one of Marozia lovers), Marozia subsequently married his opponent Guy of Tuscany, who loved his beautiful wife as much as he loved power. Together they attacked Rome, arrested Pope John X in the Lateran, and jailed him in the Castel Sant'Angelo. Either Guy had him smothered with a pillow in 928 or he simply died, perhaps from neglect or ill treatment. Marozia seized power in Rome in a coup d'état. Guy died 3 February 929.
The following popes, Leo VI and Stephen VII, were both her puppets. In 931 she even managed to impose her son as Pontiff, under the name of John XI. John was only twenty-one at the time.[2]
He had one daughter, Theodora (or Bertha), and probably a few other children of which nothing else is known. None of his children survived him and when he died in 928 or 929 his brother Lambertsucceeded him as count and duke of Lucca and margrave of Tuscany. 
Guido Margrave of Tuscany (I26946)
48 Age 16 in 1890 census.

Not born in Vester Bronderslev. 
CHRISTENSEN, Else Marie (I1028)
49 Age 57 in 1787 Census. Karen is his second wife.

Living with son in 1801 census age 71 and widowed. 
NIELSEN, Peder (I550)
50 Age 73 in 1910 Census with sister Letitia. Margaret's name is listed as Margaret Eruikshank. CRUIKSHANK, Margaret (I18565)

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